Whatever the truth of their claim to greater sophistication, Indian accounts of dualism cannot escape the limitations of this mode of theorizing. American private foundations have been very active, led by the Ford Foundation, which has invested heavily in research on change, development, and planning in India. Marx saw this as a manner for capitalist economy to boom and the upper categories to line their pockets. Sociology and Modernization Essay Modernization is the procedure in which societal and economic alteration is obtained through industrial revolution. Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd. The system itself does not change. People are more receptive to change, more interested in the future, more achievement-oriented, more concerned with the rights of individuals, and less fatalistic.
Social Mobility: When the modernisation of a country begins to take place, then the people go on migrating from the villages to cities in search of better amenities and jobs. Social relations are more bureaucratic, social mobility increases, and status relations are based less on such ascriptive criteria as age, gender, or ethnicity and more on meritocratic criteria. It is a thorough going process of change involving values, norms, institutions and structures. Interestingly, as modern structures and institutions have spread around the world and created economic, political, social, and cultural linkages, an awareness of global interdependence and of the ecological consequences of industrial development and modern lifestyles has grown. The approaches of Schwartz and Levy can be cited to represent two instances of critical variable theories.
The Ambiguous Inheritance of Indian Sociology : Apart from its difficulties with the barrenness of dualism which it shared with its siblings in other disciplines , the social-anthropological search for modernization suffered from certain other disabilities peculiarly its own. Rather, neocolonialism took over, suppressing developing nations through and finance. S, Germany, China, Japan, India, etc. The critics of the assertion that the attributes of modernity and tradition are mutually exclusive have pointed to the persistence of many traditional values and institutions in supposedly modern industrial societies. A remedy for dependency theory or foreign dependency would likely require global coordination and agreement.
Colonial administrators rarely acknowledged traditional female gender roles if they did not mirror the female gender role in Europe, which stated that women were the property of men, either fathers or husbands. By the late 1960s opposition developed because the theory was too general and did not fit all societies in quite the same way. Lenski 1999 Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology, 8th ed. What issues of theory, method, and standpoint has it raised? The evolutionary perspective, stemming from Spencer, Durkheim, and other nineteenth-century theorists, contributed the notion that societies evolve from lower to higher forms and progress from simple and undifferentiated to more complex types. Diffusion of values of equality, freedom and humanism can lay the foundations of a democratic political system. Modernization theory says that a focus on education, technology and mass media is a major reason that developed regions pull ahead from others.
Modernization theorists often saw traditions as obstacles to economic growth. The secular and scientific education act as an important means of modernization. Weber's approach provided the basis for the modernization paradigm as popularized by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons 1902-1979 , who translated Weber's works into English in the 1930s and provided his own interpretation. Economic development and equal distribution of wealth enables everybody to share sometime from the pressing necessity of daily wants and devote it in political participation. At a minimum, components of modernisation include: industrialisation, urbanisation, secularisation, media expansion, increasing literacy and education. Durkheim viewed pre-industrial societies as being held together by mechanical solidarity.
However, they would not be able to purchase goods from wealthier countries. McMichael 1996 , Roberts and Hite 1999 , Roxborough 1988 , and Scott 1995. The voter ultimately becomes enlightened and votes for that party which is likely to solve economic problems and take the country to further heights unattained so far. The non-viability of the high level of abstraction at which terms like tradition, modernity, and modernization have been pitched is underlined by recent attempts to re-examine the self- evident unitary status of most objects to which these terms used to be applied. Nevertheless, it is still the dominant perspective among government officials and international agencies concerned with third world development. Attention to modernization theory in sociology has declined as a result of the theoretical and empirical weaknesses raised especially during the 1970s. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world.
The major themes taken up by modernization studies included development, the transition from traditional to modern social forms, the aids and obstacles to the emergence of modern political institutions, and the inculcation of or resistance to modern values and norms in the individual personality 3. Western is seen as superior to preindustrial society to the extent that it has progressed through specialization to more effective ways of performing societal functions. Political dimensions of modernization involves creation of a modern nation state and the development of key institutions —political parties, bureaucratic structures, legislative bodies and a system of elections based on universal franchise and secret ballot. Contemporary responses to the demise of the modernization paradigm can take four broad routes. Modernization is a europeanization… 875 Words 4 Pages and, therefore, better society. As a symbolic interactionist would do, Chang examines the daily lives and interactions of Min and Chunming—their workplace friendships, family relationships, gadgets and goods—in this evolving global space where young women can leave tradition behind and fashion their own futures.
Finally, surveying the institutions sponsoring research, the theme of modernization gives us another perspective to this field. Another early influence on modernization theory was Weber's work on the Protestant ethic. However, this does amount to banishing the term from social theory. An Overview of the Literature 5. Modernization theory both attempts to identify the social variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies and seeks to explain the process of social evolution.
The bottom line is that modernisation can hold both positive and negative effects on society and communicating is the key to hedging unwilled catastrophes. Thus, new visions and interpretations of national and global development have already begun to replace classical modernization theory. Global trade has grown continuously since the European discovery of new continents in the Early modern period; it increased particularly as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the mid-20th century adoption of the shipping container. Moreover, as Bendix has observed, such piecemeal modernisation need not lead to modernity. High-status Europeans were in charge of the colonies.