The West, again while affirming the orthodox definition of the Trinity, tends to emphasize the unity of the Godhead. Holy Roman Empire Ironically, about the only unifying force in Europe over the next half a century was the Church itself. There were fifty-five years of 343-98 during the troubles, eleven because of deposition 404-15 , thirty-five years of the 484-519 , forty-one years of 640-81 , sixty-one years because of. The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches authorizes the local Catholic bishop to permit a Catholic priest, of whatever rite, to bless the marriage of Orthodox faithful who being unable without great difficulty to approach a priest of their own Church, ask for this spontaneously. They also had different languages.
It would take another 500 years for them to come to a head and for the great Protestant movement to reclaim Biblical Christianity for the people. That progress is over long ago. From Estrangement to Schism 858-1204 In 858, fifteen years after the triumph of icons under Theodora, a new Patriarch of Constantinople was appointed - Photius, known to the Orthodox Church as St Photius the Great. From the start Greeks and Latins had each approached the Christian Mystery in their own way. We have seen that four Eastern were to some extent contrasted to the one great Western unity. Pope and heightened the conflict by suppressing Greek and Latin in their respective domains. If we fast forward from the late 500s to the middle of the 1000s, we find that this ever-contentious phrase acutely came under the spotlight.
The reformed Papacy naturally revived the claims to universal jurisdiction which Nicolas had made. From Spain the addition spread to France and thence to Germany, where it was welcomed by Charlemagne and adopted at the semi-lconoclast Council of Frankfort 794. Although the Great Schism was still centuries away, its outlines were already perceptible. There is now no emperor and no Court to justify the oecumenical patriarch's position. The days when educated people were bilingual were over. Many of these reformers were excommunicated and their followers burnt at the stake. In the west, on the other hand, there was only one great see claiming Apostolic foundation - Rome - so that Rome came to be regarded as the Apostolic see.
They recognize the heirs of the four caliphs as legitimate religious leaders. The 869-70 council requested the Emperor to resolve the status of the Bulgarian Church, and not surprisingly he decided that it should be assigned to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The eastern and southern Mediterranean bishops generally recognized a persuasive leadership and authority of the Bishop of Rome, because the teaching of the bishop of Rome was almost invariably correct. The emperor was their friend and chief ally always. The Shi'ites call these successors Imams. The patriarchates were located in the West in Rome, which spoke Latin, and in the East in Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Byzantium, which all spoke Greek. The Normans had been forcing the Greeks in Byzantine Italy to conform to Latin usages; the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius, in return demanded that the Latin churches at Constantinople should adopt Greek practices, and in 1052, when they refused, he closed them.
Partially in response to this argument, the pope attempted to assert his primacy over the Eastern church in 1054. In accordance with the Roman Catholic Church's practice of including the clause when reciting the Creed in Latin, but not when reciting the Creed in Greek, Popes and have recited the Nicene Creed jointly with Patriarchs and Bartholomew I in Greek without the Filioque clause. As the Vicar of Christ the pope claimed more of a divine authority. The schism actually took centuries to crystalize. To press it upon the Eastern patriarchs was to prepare the way for separation; to insist upon it in times of irritation was to cause a.
Cultural and economic contacts between the eastern and western Mediterranean never entirely ceased, but they became far more difficult. Perhaps it is in the reign of Charlemagne that the schism of civilizations first becomes clearly apparent. They placed a Bull of Excommunication upon the altar and marched out once more. Clement withdrew to Avignon and the GreatSchism was in full swing. This conclusion, however, is not correct, because in the bull composed by Humbert, only Patriarch Michael I was excommunicated. However instances of open division on doctrinal questions as well as daily matters had occurred long before the Great Schism of 1054.
Henry formed a Synod which promptly dismissed Sylvester and coerced Gregory to resign. The church at Rome in the eleventh century was driven by power and seduced by all the trappings that come with it. When royal and imperial rule reestablished itself, it had to contend with power wielded independently by the Church. In 867 the Patriarch of Constantinople PhotiusI declared the insertion to be heretical, thereby accusing thePatriarch of the West the Bishop of Rome of heresy. When the new see got its titular at the 381, can. The two Churches have different approaches to understanding the Trinity.
Michael and his synod retaliated by anathematizing Humbert. We need not wonder that the , although their first place was not questioned, resented this disturbance of ancient by the of the imperial. Until recently it was thought -hat there was a second 'Photian schism', but Dr Dvornik has proved with devastating conclusiveness that this second schism is a myth: in Photius' later period of office 877-86 communion between Constantinople and the Papacy remained unbroken. Conclusion of the 1054 Great Western Schism The Great Schism of 1054 was the splitting point between Western Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Underlying Causes of the Break What caused the schism? Today, however, no serious scholar maintains that the schism began in 1054. But when two rival bishops claimed the same throne and two hostile congregations existed in the same city, the division became an immediate reality in which simple believers were directly implicated. Also, the Eastern churches resented the Roman enforcement of clerical , the limitation of the right of confirmation to the , and the use of unleavened bread in the.