Therefore, it is more difficult for them to predict or infer meaning. Try to reduce background noise in your classroom as much as you can, especially if the student wears a hearing aid. Research shows that children who are deaf or hard of hearing have normal intellectual potential Meadow, 1980. This can be a challenge in an environment where much essential information is delivered exclusively by word of mouth. Some rely on spoken language. A computer translates the phonetic symbols into English captions almost instantaneously. In addressing the child's education from birth - 21 a large number of teachers and support staff as well as community members and human service staff must work with the child.
Problem solving is especially difficult for children who are deaf, as a sound language base is necessary for putting observations into words or making predictions. Use signaling devices to alert the student to a significant sound in the lab. A personal computer with spelling and grammar functions may be required. Proponents of this philosophy acknowledge the importance of general world knowledge in the development of reading and writing. Use conceptually-based signs and avoid inventing new signs for new vocabulary.
Laboratory Refer to the section on interpreters and lip reading above in the General Strategies. Repeat the questions other students in the class asked so that students with hearing impairments know what you are refering to. And, of course, effective communication with the student is key. Hall, Oyer, and Haas 2001 suggest that teachers support hard of hearing students by frequently checking to ensure the child understands information provided in class. The possibility for social contact and interaction with other students is often limited, and this isolation or separateness may have an impact on learning. However, modern techniques are allowing for a smoother adaptation to traditional education, for both students and teachers alike.
It is also important to note that the additional disabilities experienced by the majority of children with deaf-blindness further complicates program development. If the hearing impairment remains undetected, it can result in the student facing a substantial educational disadvantage. Avoid the use of idioms. Mask all the instructions except the one that you want followed next. It is important therefore that all information should also be available as handouts. These may include manipulatives, verbal, pictorial, and symbolic modes. Maximize the use of visual media and demonstrations.
Facial expressions, gestures, and other body language will help convey your message. These devices consist of a transmitter that sends electronically enhanced sound to receivers worn by individuals who are hard-of-hearing. Control the discussion so that only one person is speaking at a time. Label equipment and materials to aid in the learning of new vocabulary items. For this reason vocabulary concepts which are taught should be more broad in nature.
Speak slowly, naturally, and clearly. This may affect participation in tutorials, particularly for students whose speech development has been impacted by their hearing loss. Get the attention of a person with a hearing impairment before speaking. Too many modifying forms, such as prepositional phrases, relative clauses. Stay with simple coordinating conjunctions e. Because of the complex language involved, an interpreter can often rephrase a question so that a student is able to better understand the intent of the question. A hearing screening or test can assess hearing loss.
Students who need information transcribed from tape must sometimes wait for a significant period of time for this to happen. Use captioned films, videos, and laser disks. Group Interaction and Discussion Be quite clear as to which topic is being discussed. The Child with Visual Impairment Some of the same instruction strategies could be used with the child who has a visual impairment. Use written announcements assignments, due dates, exam dates, changes in the class schedule, special event dates, etc. .
Conclusion The educational needs of a child with deaf-blindness are unique. The paid or volunteer note taker needs to take legible notes and then give the student with a hearing impairment the original or a copy. Since many hard of hearing students rely on lip-reading, at least partially, it is important to keep a few points in mind when you are teaching. Careful consideration should be given to concepts which can be applied to other units throughout the year and across a variety of settings. This unit may be most meaningful for him if the visit to the farm was scheduled before beginning classroom instruction.
If an important basic or technical word is to be taught: Make meaning and application a bsolutely clear. Consider using posters, charts, flash cards, pictures, manipulatives, graphic organizers, artifacts or any visual items to illustrate concepts. The use of pictures and print would be of limited value. Avoid the use of abbreviations or idioms, except for standard ones. In the Science Center he could use his vision to find objects in the sandbox.
Teachers can employ a number of methods to prevent hearing-impaired children from being left behind in school. She has published essays and book reviews. Resources Cornerstones Building Blocks of Literacy, U. Without communication skills, the child can be isolated in the learning environment and unable to participate in group activities and discovery Ray, 2001. Having the interpreter sign the problem may be an appropriate accommodation for some students. Sometimes hearing impairment can go unidentified partly because it is not immediately visible. Stylistic embellishments, such as rhetorical inversions.