Clear, well-written policies are essential for running a successful and profitable small business. There are three approaches that can be distinguished: the analysis-centric, the policy process, and the meta-policy approach. The Policymaking Process Public policy refers to the actions taken by government — its decisions that are intended to solve problems and improve the quality of life for its citizens. Molebatsi 2001 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction According to Dunn 1994:330 , rationality is a self conscious process of using explicit reasoned arguments to make and defend knowledge claims. Positivism: Where you can, choose tactics that emphasize the positive.
Personal contact: Establish or maintain contact with those who influence or make policy. Evaluations of alternatives How good is it compared to other approaches? The model follows a scientific, methodical, and rational approach to decision- making. Evaluating Policy Directives The final stage of policy-making process involves an ongoing evaluation. Preparatory steps include creating tension for change, understanding the positions of the various constituencies, and developing political support for a chosen action. Because of the representation of policy as moving through discrete steps within a larger process, the stages model implies a sequential description of how policies are formed and implemented. Administrative Behaviour, Second Edition, Macmillan: London, 1957. It aims at explaining the contextual factors of the policy process; i.
This may be observed during election campaigns or in response to disasters - when the temptation to impress particular groups of listeners is high and when the press are in attendance! Have all the relevant other approaches been considered? Pulse of the community: Take the pulse of the community of interest to understand what citizens will support, what they will resist, and how they can be persuaded. Departures from this formalised view of policy tend to recast policy more along the lines of 'whatever governments choose to do or not to do'. Namely, unlike the outcome evaluation of the majority of public policies which is deemed to complex Denhardt, 2010 , policy evaluation for Tesco is more straightforward, because it is only assessed through its contribution to the level of revenues generated by the company and its impact upon the brand image. Beyond Machiavelli : Policy Analysis Comes of Age. Robert Nakamura 1987 noted that many policies actually are decided in a much more disorderly fashion, so that the stages model excludes some policies and leads us to misunderstand others. The rational decision making relies on following logic as defined by Simm 2002, p.
This stage consists of creating policy statements with clear parameters, including whom the policy applies to, the circumstances under which policy statements and directives apply and important conditions or restrictions. Decision making models are logical, systematic, and methodical approaches to problem solving. Other policy does not require legislation: approval by Cabinet or equivalent senior policy-making organ is enough. The executive is thus pressured by interest groups. The steps involved in policy making process include problem identification, agenda setting, policy formulation, budgeting, implementing and evaluation.
They are designed to achieve outputs. Policies that focus on finances arise from profit maximization, cost minimization and internal control objectives. Is it better to amend, replace, remove, or add a policy? All of these stages can be analysed in an individual manner in relation to the packaging policy of Tesco. About the Author Based in Green Bay, Wisc. When trying to make a good decision, a person must weight the positives and negatives of each option, and consider all the alternatives.
Environmental Policy in New Zealand. On occasion, a President or Prime Minister makes an impromptu policy announcement without any formal consultation with senior policy-making colleagues, let alone the responsible bureaucratic agency or other concerned stakeholders. Second, among policy alternatives, decision makers should choose the policy that produces the greatest benefit over cost. For the case of Tesco in particular, agenda setting stage for its packaging policy occurred when the issues of environmental sustainability draw increasing amount of attention from the media and the activities of various non-government organisations. However the analytical dimensions of effects directly influences acceptability.
Making decisions is what managers and leaders are paid to do, and is an integral part of their day's duties. Effects Effectiveness What effects does the policy have on the targeted problem? Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998. There must be an authority or leader charged with the implementation and monitoring of the policy with a sound social theory underlying the program and the target group. To decide what model that is best, it might help to rule out those that would not be helpful. Efficiency How much work does or will it entail? There are several steps in the policy-making process and why each one is important. In the same way, business objectives arise from and link to your vision and mission statement. Constructing a logic model for a healthy public policy: why and how? Specific models that can be applied to work situations include the following: 1.
The process continues with adoption. Just before the conclusion, the paper discusses some criticisms of the rational model. According to Keeley and Scoones 1999 : 'The traditional starting point for defining policy is that policy constitutes the decisions taken by those with responsibility for a given policy area, and these decisions usually take the form of statements or formal positions on an issue, which are then executed by the bureaucracy. Policy implementation is the process of carrying out or executing the policy. It is linked to two different traditions of policy analysis and research frameworks. By changing the relative power and influence of certain groups e.
These are agenda building, formulation, adoption, implementation, evaluation, and termination. For example, a policy about smoking in the workplace should cite any government regulations and address concerns you may have about the health of your employees. It is important to acknowledge that the Stages Model of Policy Process is associated with a set of drawbacks. Ideas for creating effective business policies come from goals such as innovation, providing outstanding customer service and complying with government regulations. Author: Brandi Robinson, Lecturer, John A.