Although by focusing on the individual it allows for an understanding of social life free from structural constraints. We might try to reduce these intuitions to a definition: a social structure is a system of geographically dispersed rules and practices that influence the actions and outcomes of large numbers of social actors. It is concerned with the interactions between statuses: The family or the university is a social structure notwithstanding the persons who are members of these structures. Institutions may grow as do the folkways and mores or they may be created just as laws are enacted, for instance, monogamy or polyandry grew in response to some felt needs of the people. The businessmen, educators, clergymen and the functionaries of all other institutions also seek to influence the acts of state, since any state action may obstruct or help the realization of their institutional objectives.
Early sociologists who focused on these social changes include Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Harriet Martineau, and W. Institutional discrimination can occur without the awareness of either those who do the discriminating or those who are discriminated against. Disengagement theory examines retirement as a device for ensuring that a society's positions of responsibility will be passed smoothly from one generation to the next. Socialization influences not only how we express our emotions but also what emotions we feel. Thus, a family may be monogamous or polygamous; a government may be democratic or totalitarian; an economy may be capitalist or socialist. Secondary groups are larger, relatively temporary, and more anonymous, formal, and impersonal than primary groups. The medical profession has attempted to medicalize many forms of deviance, claiming that they represent mental illnesses.
It consists of both primary and secondary sex characteristics. Groups use positive sanctions to show approval of those who follow their norms and negative sanctions to show disapproval of those who violate them. The estate system of feudal Europe consisted of three estates: the nobility, clergy, and peasants serfs. So these can be fulfilled only if the members of the society are assigned different roles according to their capacities and capabilities. I have written books on social explanation, Marx, late imperial China, the philosophy of history, and the ethics of economic development. The combined insights of all three yield a more comprehensive picture of social life.
Structural features of social life According to Brown, the most important structural features of social life are as follows; 1. A person is a human being that occupies position in a social structure. According to Raymond Firth it makes no distinction between the ephemeral and the most enduring elements in social activity and it makes it almost impossible to distinguish the idea of the structure of society from that of the totality of the society itself. Role Strain Occurs when a person experiences a difficulty in meeting the demands of a role. Preventing groupthink requires the free circulation of diverse and opposing ideas. The dysfunctions of bureaucracies include alienation, red tape, lack of communication between units, and goal displacement.
The same concept can be seen in work environments when bosses are faced to discipline co-workers even though they might be close friends. Normative system - norms and values. These may be less obvious within the institutions of media and economy, but they are present there too. Social structures are not immediately visible to the untrained observer, however, they are always present and affect all dimensions of human experience in society. For example, the structure of community consists of institutions and associations which in turn consist of human beings. The social institutions are all closely interrelated and they form a complex whole. Different kinds of Roles Social Process Social process refers to the recurrent and patterned interactions or responses of individuals to one another which have attained stability.
Therefore there is a tendency for an organization to grow. In Weber's view, the impersonality of bureaucracies tends to produce alienation among workers—the feeling that no one cares about them and that they do not really fit in. If we take up the structural point of view, we study these things, not in abstraction or isolation, but in their direct and indirect relations to social structure, that is, with reference to the way in which they depend upon, or affect the social relations between persons and groups of persons. People are ethnocentric; that is, they use their own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of others. The West is adding two new stages, transitional adulthood and transitional older years. Body language is using our bodies to give messages. Elements : There is some disagreement as what would count as an 'element' of social structure.
Structures relying primarily on informal mechanisms include the Indian marriage system or the English class system. The death penalty shows biases by geography, social class, gender, and race-ethnicity. Institutions are closely linked within the social structure. Although the structure itself remains invisible, it silently shapes our actions. Social structure is sometimes defined simply as patterned social relations—those regular and repetitive aspects of the interactions between the members of a given social entity. The poverty line, although it has serious consequences, is arbitrary. Conflict theorists argue that stratification is the outcome of an elite emerging as groups struggle for limited resources.
The situation is very important in determining leadership. Power is the ability to get your way even though others resist. A convicted criminal, in a prison uniform, is an example of a person who has been stigmatized; the uniform says that the person has done something wrong and should not be allowed unsupervised outside prison walls. One reason for this is that the instrumental leaders tend to lose popularity they tell everybody what to do and give them a hard time if it's not done. Even Durkheim, Morgan, Marx and others gave their own interpretations to it. In all these we find an ordered arrangement of different parts. Members of ethnic groups identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and cultural heritage.
Health care cost of the aged are soaring. And this fact is causally important: we can't explain the individual's identity without reference to the sustained and fairly consistent features of the group with respect to its social identity. Thus, the kinslup system cuts across the tribal relationship. What are the central assumptions we make in designating something as a social structure? Merton identified five types of responses to cultural goals and institutionalized means: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. There may also take place a shifting of functions from one institution to another. No institution can avoid affecting other institutions or avoid being affected by others.