It should study the genetic forms of social relationship, behavior, activities etc. It is approach rather than content that is the test of science. On the other hand the synthetic school with Durkheim, Hobhouse and Sorokin advocated a synthesis in form of coordination among all social sciences. But even if it were, the existence of such separate sciences does not preclude the existence of a more general science whose task it would be to relate their separate conclusions and deal with the more general conditions of social life. In his view, sociology should confine itself to the study of formal behavior and avoid the examination of actual behavior. Man has his own prejudice and bias. Mckee holds that Social Action, Social Structure, Social Processes and Social Institutions are included in the scope of sociology.
Augustine also argued that society was guided by the divine principles. These links often connect the rulers to do good to the people. It should refrain itself from making a historical study of concrete societies. Opinion differs on the scope of sociology but there are mainly two important schools of thought about it namely, formalistic school and synthetic school. Sociology has welt developed theories. To sum up, the value of Sociology lies in the fact that it keeps us up-to-date on modern situations; it contributes to making good citizens; it contributes to the solution of community problems; it adds to the knowledge of the society; it helps the individual find his relation to society; it identifies good government with community and it helps one to understand causes of things and so on.
Thus economics studies society from an economic viewpoint; political science studies it from political viewpoint while history is a study of society from a historical point of view Sociology alone studies social relationships and society itself. The difficulty lies in getting the data for the process is very costly. The main views of the school regarding the scope of Sociology are - i Sociology is a specific, pure and independent social science. Hobhouse perceived sociology as a science which has the whole social life of man as its sphere. To do this satisfactorily Sociology must co-operate with a number of other sciences, which are as dependent upon the data and conclusions of sociology as sociology is upon them. Sociology is a science of sciences and all the social sciences are included in its scope. Those who enjoy the privilege and power and feel empowered than otjer are supra citizens, while those who are purge out of the society and live a marginalised life are sub citizens of the nations.
These relationships consist in love and hate, attitude of respect, submission, shame, co-operation, competition, the approval of others etc. In India, the importance of the study of sociology is still greater The Indian society is undergoing a rapid transformation. Simmel argued that social interactions have various forms. This universal plant substance is aptly called the botanical skeleton since it occupies this role in the fibrous cell. Comparative Sociology deals mainly with the historical variations of the same phenomenon and tries to find by comparison general features as separated from industrial features.
These definitions indicate that sociologists differ from one another in their views on sociology. It should not be forgotten that each branch of social physiology is related to a set of social facts, which is nothing but activities of social groups. All these factors constitute the infrastructure of politics which forms an essential part of the scope of Politics. Secondly the links among different parts of society should be studied. The ultimate purpose of Sociology is the deliberate modification of social life. Against these, some other elites, which got the popular name of democratic elites, came forward to espouse the idea of a more open-ended and humanitarian view of government and politics.
Karl Mannheim's divides sociology into two main sections-systematic and general sociology and historical sociology. According to Durkheim, sociology has three principal divisions' namely-Social morphology, social physiology and general sociology. There are no watertight compartments of knowledge in reality. Comparative Study of Constitutions: Each State has a constitution which is the supreme law of the state. No sociologist has so far succeeded in contracting sociology as a pure and independent social science. It means that the different forms of social relationship and not the relationships between themselves should be the subject of sociology. But secondly, bearing in mind the interconnections of social relations he should try to interconnect the results arrived at by the different social sciences and, thirdly, he should interpret social life as a whole.
American Political Science Review, Vol 57. Comparative sociology deals mainly with the historical variations of the same phenomenon and tries to find by comparison general features as separated from industrial features. No sociologist has so far succeeded in contracting sociology as a pure and independent social science. Citizen participation in government 4. Future of State is an important area of the study of Politics.
Sorokin says that it is impossible to think of a social institution whose form remains unchanged when its content has already changed. It studies the group living of human beings. Importance of Sociology: It is quite natural to ask about the value of sociology, the purpose that it serves and the gain that is derived by studying it. Systematic sociology describes one by one the main factors of living together as far as they may be found in every kind of society. The term 'Sociology' was coined by Auguste Comte, a French philosopher in 1839. Apart from these two processes a mixed form of the associative and non-associative also exists.
Others believe that dispassionate study of social phenomena is not possible, the investigator cannot be neutral, he must take sides. It means that the different forms of social relationship and not the relationships between themselves should be the subject of sociology. His analysis with regard to relations between Economics and Religion enables him to use both historical as well as systematic method. Social physiology is concerned with such dynamic processes as religion, morals, law, economic and political aspects, etc. He makes a distinction between the forms of social relationships and their contents and subject matter. Talking about the political system, every one of it has specified and defined purposes or jobs called the political activity.
Ginsberg says that a study of social relationships would remain barren if it is conducted in the abstract without the full knowledge of the terms to which in concrete life they relate. Each trend is associated with a scholar or an idea which started the trend. Social life is so complex that division of labour is needed to study it. The Biologists: With the publication of Origin of Species by Darwin, considerable studies were made towards the development of Sociology. Hortwitz underlines the fact that the course of events identified social science not only with neutrality but with scholarly aloofness from moral issue. This can be undersood with the help of one example. As a general science it is especially fitted to deal with characteristics that are common to all groups, all societies.