Choosing a closely related outgroup relative to the ingroup is more useful when looking at subtle differences, while choosing an unduly distant outgroup can result in mistaking for a direct evolutionary relationship due to a. Outgroups are used for comparative purposes, usually to determine the relative of a pair or series of s. A good example of this is the classic doll studies in which African American children presented with a Black or White doll to play with chose the White doll at least in the early demonstrations , an apparent outgroup preference. Many theories of intergroup relations in social psychology try to explain this phenomenon. One weakness of the realistic conflict approach is that it seems to imply that ingroup bias should occur when there are conflicts of interest, and this is clearly not always the case. This can be expressed in one's evaluation of others, linking, allocation of resources, and many other ways. Whenever he meets other werewolves, he already knows some things about them: what they do on full nights, what their sense of smell is like, even some of the foods that they crave.
However, there is evidence that elements of favoritism are flexible in that they can be erased by changes in social categorization. A conceptually similar effect known as outgroup polarization has been demonstrated by Patricia Linville and E. However, the optimal level of relatedness of the outgroup to the ingroup depends on the depth of phylogenetic analysis. All things being equal, people tend to like others from their ingroup more than from an outgroup. Ougroup bias is simply the tendency to have negative views about people that are not part of one's own group. This is normally done by including an ~ in the input data so that the root is necessarily between the ~ and the rest of the taxa in the tree, or by introducing additional assumptions about the relative rates of on each branch, such as an application of the molecular clock. Specifically, people tend to think about ingroups not as an undifferentiated mass but, rather, as a collection of meaningful subgroups.
In addition, the Ferae have specialized carnivorous. Because the other werewolves are similar to George, he is more likely to understand and like them than he is to understand and like John, who is from a different group. This is true even when they do not allocate rewards to the group as a whole where they could benefit personally but only individual members of the ingroup. Studies on facial recognition have demonstrated how widespread and ingrained outgroup homogeneity is. Homologies present in some or all of the ingroup taxa are assumed to have evolved after the divergence of the ingroup and ~ taxa. In phylogenetic systematic studies, a species or group of species closely related to but not included within a taxon whose is being studied, and used to polarize of characters and to root the. Outgroup George is a werewolf.
This is especially likely to occur in regard to negative characteristics. Outgroup homogeneity has been demonstrated even with minimal groups. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 575-604. Democrats see themselves as more diverse than they are viewed by Republicans; Southerners see themselves as more heterogeneous than they are viewed by the rest of U. And unfortunately, many studies have shown that, even if you are friends with members of an outgroup, you're likely to cling to outgroup homogeneity.
Some have argued that ingroup bias can be explained by self-interest after all, if it is assumed that there is an expectation of reciprocity of mutual reward among ingroup members. Ciona was inferred as the ~. Usually this is done by considering some ~ of organisms we know are not too. For shallow phylogenetics—for example, resolving the evolutionary relationships of a clade within a genus—an appropriate outgroup would be a member of the sister clade. A final suggested mechanism is that information about ingroups tends to be organized in a more complex and articulated manner than for outgroups.
Cladistic analyses support placement of the gnetales or some portion of them as ~s for the ing s. For example, people may find it psychologically meaningful to view themselves according to their , , , age, or. Under certain conditions, ingroup members can be perceived as being similar to one another in regard to positive characteristics. In out-group polarization, individual outgroup members are similarly judged in an all-or-none fashion. The explanation proposed for this was that such discrimination provides the group with a positive distinctiveness that can enhance the social identity and self-esteem of ingroup members.
One obvious and recurring explanatory factor is self-interest: People may favor their own groups, and derogate outgroups, because it benefits them through resources or rewards. When subjects are asked to learn about a group by organizing members into meaningful subgroups, this results in the perception of greater diversity and variability among group members, than when no such study instructions are given. Everything you always wanted to know. However, the explanations for discrimination in minimal groups remain hotly contested. Tajfel and colleagues found that people can form self-preferencing ingroups within a matter of minutes and that such groups can form even on the basis of completely arbitrary and invented discriminatory characteristics, such as preferences for certain paintings. Seeing the members of a different group as similar to each other is called. They get to know each other better, and George realizes that he likes being friends with John.
These experiments found evidence of this maximizing difference strategy. Outgroup Homogeneity Definition Outgroup homogeneity is the tendency for members of a group to see themselves as more diverse and heterogeneous than they are seen by an outgroup. Importantly, when one statistically controls for differences in the number of subgroups that are generated, differences in perceived group variability that is, outgroup homogeneity go away. One feature of these experiments was the development of reward matrices designed to measure different reward strategies. The so-called minimal group studies show that people tend to favor their own group in terms of reward allocations even when they are categorized on a trivial basis e.
This is because there is a tendency to look at members of our own group as being diverse and members of a different group as being the same. Here, outgroup members are rated in a more extreme or polarized manner than ingroup members. When George meets John, he doesn't know what John's like on full moon nights or what his sense of smell is like, and he's not sure if John eats meat or just sticks to blood. This is the basic idea behind the realistic group conflict theory, which explains such bias in terms of real conflicts of interests between groups that are competing with each other for scarce resources e. One study in the field of suggests that biological mechanisms may exist which favor a coexistence of both flexible and systems.
It has been shown that this effect is related to a psychologically salient ingroup and outgroup categorization. ~: Taxon phylogenetically outside the of interest the ingroup. Although undoubtedly differences in familiarity do exist, this does not appear to be the whole story. ~: ~s A taxon that is not part of the ingroup but that is included in a phylogenetic analysis in to provide information about the root of the ingroup and to help differentiate between apomorphies and plesiomorphies in the ingroup. When rating males and females with various college majors, the ingroup ratings were more likely to take into account the college major, whereas ratings made by outgroup members relied simply on the gender category.