But what is the character of moral intuitions as evidence? Political theories attempt to explain the way people think when it comes to politics. More recently, think of the hundreds of footnotes that adorn the book manuscripts of John Rawls as he continued to address criticisms, qualifications, and extensions to his arguments. It is the disciplined investigation of political problems not only to show what a political practice is, but also to show what it means. There are other theories that have emerged after the normative theories to better their aspects. The study of what is, as opposed to what ought to be, lends a certain respectability to political science that is not attached to opinion-writing or political theorists. But is the process of providing necessary and sufficient conditions for determining the extension of these terms sufficient to clarify political argument? The first one talks about participation of audience in media. Thus, one might fruitfully distinguish three sorts of issues.
Another traditional method of theorizing is the use of thought experiments and intuition pumps. In subsequent work 1993 Rawls revised the theory of justice, arguing that liberal political societies committed to some form of representative democracy and characterized by reasonable pluralism would be united by a political conception of justice rather than a moral one. Normative approach is deployed in defining the concepts of justice,liberty, equality, rights, democracy, peace, and the like. Historical Approach: Theorists who developed this political approach focused on the historical factors like the age, place and the situation in which it is evolved are taken into consideration. On the other hand, Elaine's empirical research can benefit from using normative insights in evaluating her findings. This conception was presented in a period in political science when positivism and the research approach of behaviorism was dominant across the discipline.
Normative Versus Empirical Theory The dichotomy between empirical and normative theories was itself rooted in a philosophy of language borrowed from the philosophical movement called logical positivism. These procedures are defined as approaches, methods, techniques and strategies. History gives the chronological order of every political event and thereby helps in future estimation of events also. On the other hand, Guizot never forgets that all political societies are imperfect, transient, and historically contingent. Exegesis of historic texts in political philosophy, either in the historical context of their authors or as a timeless conversation, is typically construed to be helpful for philosophers. These approaches were principled also as their concern went beyond how and why political events happen to what ought to happen. The aim of this approach is to evolve the standard of right and wrong, for the purpose of critical evaluation of existing institutions, laws and polices Gauba, 2009.
Yet democratic theory did not arise as an institutionalized academic or intellectual discipline until the 20th century. But I also make these predictions as an invitation for those more skilled at observing and more experienced in living in such societies to offer their own insights in response or in refutation. Even though such a thesis is very popular in political science, it cannot be borne out in present-day policy. Quantification: After collecting data, the researcher should measure and quantify those data. The committee administering the preliminary examination may pass a student with distinction on the basis of both your performance in the qualifying procedure and in your paper presentation and defense. The most dominant political theories realise all three goals such as describe, explain, and predict. This approach strongly maintains the belief that the thinking or the dogma of every political thinker is formed by the surrounding environment.
Logical positivists, drawing on the philosophies of David Hume and Immanuel Kant, held that statements could be of two types, meaningful and meaningless. And since our field, he claimed, seeks after noble and just actions in the political societies we inhabit, we might as well accept that our knowledge will never amount to the perfect mathematical demonstration our perfectionism aspires to. Interpretive or hermeneutic approaches take a somewhat different approach to normative theory. But think about it: Were the patriots right to throw the tea in the harbor? The supporters of this approach includes both ancient and modern political philosophers. Just because something happens in a certain way doesn't mean it ought to be that way. There is censorship by government on criticisms and other things negatively portrayed about them.
You can also debate politics in the past. Sabine stated that Political Science should include all those subjects which have been discussed in the writings of different political thinkers from the time of Plato. I intend to make the specific prediction that political theorists will continue to find their home in large numbers in political science departments, where they will continue to have mutually beneficial if occasionally challenging interactions with more empirically oriented political scientists. More specifically, study will illustrate the values and normative tradition in specific to research subjects and actors of social sciences. Their unique concern with both the noumenal world of reason, truth, and justice and the phenomenal world of politics has always posed unique challenges.
Broadly speaking, empirical approach seeks to discover and describe facts whereas normative approach seeks to determine and prescribe value Gauba, 2009. They stated that in social science such as facts values are closely related with each other. This approach believes that political events are shaped by various other factors in the society and therefore, it would be wrong to separate Political Science from other disciplines. As a philosopher, I disagree with the conclusions presented here. Behavioural approach: Among the modern empirical approach, the behavioural approach, to study political science grabbed notable place.
In particular, it is incumbent upon political scientists to seek out critical, agonistic, respectful engagement with other theoretical perspectives. These approaches accentuate the structures and functions. You can divide the approaches to political theory into two categories. It is analytical, expository and descriptive. Among the most important perspectives that fall into this category are Habermasian discourse ethics, interpretive hermeneutic political theory articulated by thinkers such as Charles Taylor, and genealogical perspectives exemplified by the work of William Connolly. Robert Weiner had evolved this approach.