People are generally self-interested, although their affection for others can be won and lost. The term that best captures Machiavelli's vision of the requirements of power politics is virtù. Forget ideals and achieve political advantage over your rivals by any means, bribery, violence and deceit. Cary Nederman 1999 extends and systematizes Grazia's insights by showing how such central Christian theological doctrines as grace and free will form important elements of Machiavelli's conceptual structure. What makes Machiavelli a troubling yet stimulating thinker is that, in his attempt to draw different conclusions from the commonplace expectations of his audience, he still incorporated important features of precisely the conventions he was challenging. However, he does state that cruelty must always be justified and not merely abused as a virtue.
Machiavelli, however, was a realist. Machiavelli provides examples of leaders who gained power through either fortune or virtue to accentuate the greater importance of virtue for a leader. The virtuous and prudent investor does the same. This is a good example to explain the idea of Machiavelli about changing with the changes. If the markets are frothy, the investor ought to proceed with extra caution as to build dikes and dams.
Thus, Machiavelli can be described as confident in the power of human beings to shape their destinies to a degree, but equally confident that human control over events is never absolute. Machiavelli thus seeks to learn and teach the rules of political power. Machiavelli believes that a prince must be engaged in military study and training at all times, especially during times of peace. Machiavelli provides Italy as an example, comparing it with Germany, France, and Spain. Virtù, which has the present meaning of manliness, is used by Machiavelli as having skills, strength, intelligence and prudence of a ruler. Machiavelli stresses the importance of gaining the support of the people because that is essential in times of trouble. In addition to these, Machiavelli stands up for the idea that a life can not be ruled only by fate.
I think you will find more than 5. Virtue is the best defense for fortune, and virtue must be used in order to keep fortune under control. Moreover, the character of governance is determined by the personal qualities and traits of the ruler—hence, Machiavelli's emphasis on virtù as indispensable for the prince's success. Thus, the classical concept of civic virtue, which is a moral code applicable to rulers and subjects alike, is critically transformed in Machiavelli's concept of virtu', which pertains to rulers of states and can be at odds with moral virtue. Many of his colleagues in the republican government were quickly rehabilitated and returned to service under the Medici.
. This makes it brutally clear there can be no equivalence between the conventional virtues and Machiavellian virtù. Machiavelli clearly views speech as the method most appropriate to the resolution of conflict in the republican public sphere; throughout the Discourses, debate is elevated as the best means for the people to determine the wisest course of action and the most qualified leaders. Good qualities are not good if they result in the ruin of the state. In the Italian language, the term virtù is historically related to the Greek concept of , the Latin , and Medieval Catholic virtues, e.
The excesses to the virtue of religion put faith in created thing which do not deserve it:. He explicitly distinguishes between fortune and virtue and posits that only virtue can make a leader great. This was contrary to the ideals of government formed by the Greeks, Romans and Christian tradition, which Macchiavelli shared. A prince should not hesitate in using force or going to war. Although Machiavelli does not specify how Pope Leo X should exercise his goodness and virtues, it is evident that he supports any actions that bring glory to the Church. This apparent contradiction has kept readers debating over the real meaning of Machiavelli's philosophy for centuries.
Chapter 10 Virtue 7: An important virtue for a prince is his ability to relate to his citizens. Much of The Prince is devoted to describing exactly what it means to conduct a good war: how to effectively fortify a city, how to treat subjects in newly acquired territories, and how to prevent domestic insurrection that would distract from a successful war. However it is clear that if the Prince really does express these qualities quite often, he will undoubtedly loose the positive appearance in public and even loose his power. Here lies the central contradiction of the philosophy. This is by and large correct. It is easy to break a bond of love when the situation arises, but the fear of punishment is always effective, regardless of the situation. Taking Hannibal as an example, he observes how a combination of inhuman cruelty and bravery inspired respect and awe among his soldiers.
He thought there were certain skills and characteristics needed to become a political ruler. In contrast, Fortune is defined as circumstances that are uncontrollable by a leader, which entails the political environment, other political actors, and sheer luck. When inducing fear, however, a prince must be careful to avoid inducing hatred. He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadaan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights Laylat al-Qadr, so venerate that which Allaah has told us to venerate. It is far easier to convince a single ruler to undertake a disastrous or ill-conceived course of action than a multitude of people. In short, a prudent ruler cannot and must not honor his words.