Many Han officials were appointed based on their ability to write essays explaining Confucian thought and how it applied to the administration of the Empire. As written by Han authors, roads built during the Han were tamped down with metal rammers, yet there is uncertainty over the materials used; speculates that they were rubble and gravel. Although a few rump states continue to exist and the Eastern empire tried several times to reconquer the west, Western Europe was securely in the hands of the barbarians. Officials selected students on the basis of recommendations, and at graduation these young men began careers in the bureaucracy. Similarities The Roman Empire: Ideologies The republic People had a say in their government with tribunes and other voting opportunities. This was definitely not going to help the Roman Empire. They laid down a legal code that forms the basis of most western legal codes.
The leaders forced crops and resources into the army leaving little for the peasants. It was ruled by an emperor who greatly observed the Mandate of Heaven. Large-scale commercial plantation agriculture emerged on estates called latifundia. Islam's culture and ideas were spread primarily through traders, raveling scholars, and military conquests. The practice of farmers and traders using contracts was coming to replace the tradition of ties of blood dominating public and private affairs.
The Xiongnu, the Yuezhi, and the Han Dynasty The most serious military threat to the Han came from the nomadic peoples to the north, especially the Xiongnu. Roman society was a relatively hierarchical society. Improvements to communication, infrastructure, governance, military tactics, and commerce all become necessary as a kingdom becomes an empire. Poor Roman citizens increasingly looked toward army commanders to provide them with land and a decent income. These problems slowly diluted the central power of the emperor and the court into the hands of great aristocratic families who obtained even more private property and turned free peasants into tenants.
They held the most expensive and valuable item, silk. As with other ancient economies, agriculture was the basis of Roman economy. The writer requested the formation of water conservation officers in each district, and inspections of waterways, walls, etc. The Roman people made unprecedented advances in science and technology, and organized an economy that was hitherto unprecedented in the Mediterranean. These empires made it possible for their subjects to live more peaceful and predictable lives than previously known. They blend all sorts of fragrances, and by boiling the juice, make storax. Many of the scientific improvements during the Roman Empire revolved around architecture and engineering, which gave their citizens aqueducts and basic plumbing.
When the Jin collapsed into civil war, the barbarians rose up in revolt. Confucians and Daoists supported this hierarchy. The Han Dynasty rose to success by applying legalism as their set government. Zoroastrianism and islam required prayer multiple times a day. The Roman peasantry and slaves, taxed heavily by the aristocrats, also grew disgruntled. The nomadic Parthians and Sasanians had a decisive advantage on the arid plains of Iran and Iraq against the cumbersome Roman infantry.
Both the Han and Roman Empire had centralized governments that were driven by theological and ideological values. At the outset of the Han dynasty, the central government refrained from interfering with regional communities. The Journal of Asian Studies. Governors depended on lower-ranking officials to aid them. Every significant Roman town had public entertainment facilities such as theaters and amphitheaters, the most famous of which was the Colosseum in Rome. These standards were all different in the individual states during the warring states period.
The Chinese Peace: Trade, Oases, and the Silk Road After the defeat of the Xiongnu, a Pax Sinica ensued that allowed a period of extended peace and prosperity. Poor tenant farmers and hired laborers eked out an existence, and at the bottom of society resided convicts and slaves, who represented a small percentage of the population. Chinese civilization survives to the present time, while Roman civilization merged into the larger medieval European culture which adopted, amongst others, Christian faith, the Latin language and alphabet and Roman Law. Establishing Trade The Silk Road Connected China to Rome and other regions China exported silk, iron, and bronze in exchange for gold, linen, cloth, and livestock. Scheidel gives this as a contributing cause to the relative paucity of comparative studies between the two. Housing was dangerous and cramped, and crime and violence was rampant.
The basis of this society were free peasants, who formed the base of the tax revenues of the state and who produced most of the agricultural crop. The Han dynasty prospered due to a well-structured administration and constant military success. Throughout the successful years of the Han Dynasty, legalism proved to be a strict but prosperous government. Over expanded to the point where the empire was too far-flung to have effective control over subjects, land, and resources Failure to expand caused the empire to lose their subject's faith and weakened state ideology Internal and external rebellions put a strain on the empire's military and government The Han Dynasty: Decline The Han Dynasty ended with failure to lead by the leaders sucking the wealth from agriculture and economy to themselves and the military. The Han used Confucian thought as the primary ideology of the empire, in which the welfare of the people was the concern of the state and the basis of legitimate rule.
The Han dynasty began with more stability and prosperity with large metal deposits and agricultural growth. Rome demanded that defeated communities provide men for the Roman army every year. However, the position was dangerous; out of 22 emperors between Augustus and the third century, 15 died by murder or suicide. The effects of the falls of the Han and the Roman Empires are different because China was able to make a comeback whereas Rome was not. They believed that a Savior would come who was the Son of God, and he would save them from their sins. He added his part in helping Rome's economy to fall apart by raising taxes, opposing religious toleration, and much more.
Rome had very large cities with little room because there were so many people, which also meant there was no room to build store houses. They developed systems such as irrigation to make farming easier. The profit margin is ten to one. The exercise… 1059 Words 5 Pages The Han Dynasty ruled China from 206 B. They merged the multitude of ethnic groups and city-states into a large single-unit political state. This greatly helped trade, which was already flourishing during the warring states period.