Utilitarianism is a view within that good and bad are determined by something's utility. The 'goodness' of God's creation quickly comes under threat. I think that one of the biggest troubles with utilitarianism is that nobody knows what they want. Examples include the Hebrew midwives who lied to save Israelite babies, and were specifically blessed by God for doing so Ex 1:15-21 ; Rahab helping the spies in order to save her family Jos 2, esp. John Stuart Mill defines happiness as the intended pleasure and absence of pain while unhappiness is pain and the privation of pleasure.
Philosophers have theorized about moral actions for eons, one such philosopher is John Stuart Mill. If it were not so, we would never have had willing martyrs. Pleasure is rather elusive kind of like chasing the high , and generally indefinable. I also think it is in human nature to want to control people and tell them what to do, whether in the religious sphere i. Adam and Eve live in paradise because they live under God's rule. I started to believe that the firm logic of utilitarianism was the antithesis of a passionate love for God. An action is right or wrong based on its consequences.
How does the Bible define it? St Thomas Aquinas, I believe, says that there are three forms of life: the happy life, the good life, and the meaningful life. Writers like Halevy have presented Bentham and Mill as being exclusively concerned with personal happiness, making utilitarianism into a merely egoistic phenomenon. But this brings God's judgement upon them. It's a tug of war with no centralized, functional policies. However, I began to realize the missing link in my thinking. Doubtless there are overtones and undertones of another spirit but the major idea is a thorough social pragmatism. Economic Morality and Jewish Law.
The question of certainty is how certain are the pleasures. In theory, morality is supposed to be unbiased, but when it is put into the hands of humans, there is always going to be Classical utilitarianism, the theory as described by 17th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, states that the only thing that matters is that are the happiness and unhappiness that is created as a consequence of an action; those actions are to be judged right or wrong solely by virtue of their consequences, everything else is irrelevant. Second, situation ethics suffers from the same problem of utilitarianism in predicting consequences. In sinning we harm ourselves — I should not lie because it is bad for me, not only that it offends God! It has rarely if ever been at peace within itself, and the wars of the nations it has most deeply influenced have equaled and surpassed in frequency and in destruction those waged by societies dominated by other faiths. Pleasure is a human definition of good and, as such, can be very subjective. Life is too complex and the future too unknown to reduce ethics to utility alone.
I hope that makes the distinction. Mill says that we have to look at the bigger picture. Kant would argue that to kill a person is always, absolutely wrong even if this person would kill your friends, or family. When results occur, we must still ask whether they are good or bad results. Paul he says love is not self-seeking. Goodness does not fluctuate with the trends of human desire or the passage of time. When God has given us only general indications, and does not send us a physical manual detailing His will for our lives, are we not to also rely upon our observations and inclinations in this world? Mill based his utilitarian theory on the decisions that people make.
However, virtue ethics is constructed upon a presupposition: virtuousness. A school of thought that holds that the good is useful, that is to say, in this ethical doctrine is postulated that the morally good lies in the legitimate aspiration to wellness. Paul continues this teaching in Romans 1, establishing that since the creation of the world, God's power is clearly displayed, and men are without excuse when they exchange the truth of God for a lie, and worship created things rather than the Creator v 25. Since it was first articulated in the late 19th Century by the likes of Jeremy Bentham and later John Stewart Mill, Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory. Bentham held that no one should take actions as right or wrong as a given, but should use empirical evidence to work out their effect and subsequently conclude on its appropriateness.
It is the utility of any moral rule alone which constitutes the obligation of it. Two great Christian writers focusing on utilitarianism at the same time. The fourth is propinquity which refers to how soon will the pleasures be available. The central teaching of Genesis 1 and 2 is that God creates the universe with a clear order and purpose. On the other hand the effort to translate Christian faith into a socially useful force entails the suppression and transformation of some vital elements in it, just as the effort to make it serviceable to individualistic success in the era of early capitalism entailed the deformation of the Reformation into the sort of thing that Tawney has described for us.
However, that this act could impact a family with sorrow, or deprive a distant future spouse joy is not considered by the deontologist. The question of an ethical theory, then, is how does one know, love and serve God? Ethical Theory: A Concise Anthology. You think you can get away with saying that shit to me over the Internet? First is its focus on outcomes. Love came to die a death on the Cross! Christians could believe in both, I suppose. Economics, at it was presented to me at first, seemed to hold the power of harnessing reason and precise tools to bring about a better world. The Metaphysical Elements of Ethics.