Though the Benin works are very difficult to acquire today, hundreds of them are held by a few major museums, including the British Museum, Ethnological Museum in Berlin, and Field Museum in Chicago. Over the years, some archeologists and African government officials have demanded the return of the objects. Will it act as most people have urged it to do? They have heard important museum directors, from museums such as the Louvre, The British Museum, Musée du Quai Branly, Museum für Völkerkunde Wien, Ethnologisches Museum, Staatlische Museen zu Berlin, The Art Institute of Chicago, Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence, Prado Museum, Madrid and others state that these stolen objects are now part of the culture of the countries which stole them and are now keeping them. But why this great interest? Artistically, the image reminds me of the pointy helmets of Europe. Elgin was the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, which then controlled Greece. It also shows that slavery, colonialism and imperialism cannot be dismissed as matters of the past.
It is essentially an enabling right that creates various avenues for the exercise of other basic human rights. As already mentioned in reading 2. The history of the Benin Kingdom cannot be completely told without extensive mention of Queen Idia. Mental health refers to a state of well-being in which the individual realizes their own abilities, can manage everyday stresses of life, can work productively, and are able to make a contribution to the community. Somebody seems to have taken as a model The Jungle Book. By combining three innovative preventative approaches, it was h. Many have not even bothered to request from the former colonial governments for the return of our cultural objects which were taken away during the colonial period.
We know from the writings of Michel Leiris that the anthropologists often stole many of these objects See Afrique Fantôme. Trade and Empire: Remembering Slavery explored the themes of trade and empire, commerce and collecting, and the impact and resonance of slavery and its legacy, in the context of the 2007 bicentenary of the abolition of the trade. And the youngest son of Osanbua founded the Ogiso dynasty that reigned there till the 1300s. The plaques date to the 1500s and 1600s. And where do our museum directors and specialists stand? Supporters of the Western museums and private collectors holding stolen cultural goods should be advised to develop better arguments for still holding on to stolen goods. Only the Oba is entitled to decorate his shrine with bronze castings.
Recognition of the antiquity of the technology in Benin advanced when these sculptures were dated definitively to that era. Any comment deemed libellous by Elginism's editors will be removed. The 's palace in Benin, the site of production for the royal , also was the backdrop for an elaborate court ceremonial life in which the Oba, his warriors, chiefs and titleholders, priests, members of the palace societies and their constituent guilds, foreign merchants and mercenaries, and numerous retainers and attendants all took part. Almost all Benin art was created to honour the King, or Oba, who has reigned, with his ancestors, from the 15th century. It was a common assumption of nineteenth-century European and American Whites - promoted by the deliberate cultivation of pseudoscientific racism - that Africans were inferior to Whites and were devoid of any trace of civilization or culture. The Musée du Quai Branly is, to some extent, a success from architectural and aesthetic point of view of Europeans.
Two hundred of the pieces were taken to the , London, while the rest were purchased by other European museums. Is the emphasis on the aesthetic aspects of Benin art a way of avoiding the issue of restitution which could arise when the viewer has more information on the sources and methods of acquisition of these objects as well as their functions and their deeper philosophical, religious or symbolic significance? The palace, a vast sprawling agglomeration of buildings and courtyards, was the setting for hundreds of rectangular brass plaques whose relief images portray the persons and events that animated the court. In 1897 Steve and Dalton had very little true insight into what they were looking at. The features of many of the heads are exaggerated from natural proportions, with large ears, noses, and lips, which are shaped with great care. And everyday they remember, who they were and who they have been.
The moat not only serves as a source of erosion control, but also a trench for defending the land of the Binis in the numerous wars fought to preserve the kingdom. The Benin Empire became one of the oldest and most highly developed states in the world. The story goes that when they came down to earth and poured the sand onto the waters that covered the earth, dry land emerged, beautiful red and fertile soil, tall lush green palm trees, warm air soft as warm blankets… so soft that you could forever sink into it as it wrapped you in its humid embrace. The story goes that the Portuguese who didn't understand its importance made a replica sent it back to the reigning Oba, saying that his people are also versed in bronze casting. They were hung on the pillars of the palace by nails punched directly through them.
One of the oldest sculptures in Africa was the extraordinary terracotta ceramic faces, many of which have worn out over time, recorded in western African country of Nigeria and are as old as 2,500 years or more. Once a French protectorate, it is a country of 40 ethnic tribal groups and a low-level economy. A Europe which prefers to establish an armed force to guard its frontiers specifically against Africans Frontex. The main problem, as far the average reader is concerned, is the absence of information on what objects have been stolen from which country and by which country. Consequently the Museum has an obligation towards all of humanity, not least in reminding us all of the tragic history of past and present phenomena such as slavery. The term was later stripped from the legislation, but the law was an embarrassment for France.
Special thanks to my friend Dr Eghosa Ekhator, a lawyer and very proud Bini man, for allowing me to pick his brains relentlessly as I wrote this. It would not make sense to anyone. The Greek Government has been calling for the Marbles to be returned since they were seized in 1799 and given to the British Museum. This also explains the general lack of information or explanation about objects on display. This also allowed for polychromatic artworks, which were achieved using knife cuts and applications of natural pigments made with vegetable oil or palm oil.
They were used principally to decorate the royal palace, which contained many bronze works. During his reign, the empire reached its largest size. The Europeans took advantage of the weapons they had, and the enmities that existed between some African states which made them seek alliances with foreigners as the Europeans. Its research gives oral and visual evidence a role in reflecting the plaques from Benin and properly interpreting them. Access to formal services is also impinged by distance and financial factors; service quality is extremely very poor and is highly characterized by drug and staff shortages, lack of political commitment, poor infrastructure and negligence among health staff Kadzandira and Chalowa, 2001. The plaques date to the 1500s and 1600s. Irritated by the equivocations of the people our decision is quickly made: Griaule takes two flutes and slips them into his boots, we place the other things in place and we leave.